C. perfringens Type A is commonly found in dairies, from the soil and water to the intestinal tract of the cattle themselves. Under certain conditions, it will proliferate, with death or severe illness appearing almost overnight. Antibiotic treatment is generally unsuccessful.

Fusobacterium necrophorum

foot rot

Fusobacterium necrophorum is an anaerobic bacterium that causes foot rot in cattle. A common sign of foot rot is swelling between the claws of the hoof and lameness.

Histophilus somni is a gram-negative bacterium that lives in the nasal passages of cattle. It can be described as an opportunistic pathogen and can cause a variety of disease where co-infection or compromised immunity are present. Histophilus somni is considered a major bacterial participant in the bovine respiratory complex (BRD).

Mannheimia haemolytica

Mannheimia haemolytica is the most frequently isolated bacterium from the lungs of cattle with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). It normally resides in the upper respiratory tract, but is opportunistic and can invade the lung when defenses are compromised by stress or other infection.

Moraxella bovis is a gram negative bacterium that causes Pinkeye (IBK) in cattle. It can be transmitted by biting flies and other infected animals.

Moraxella bovoculi

Moraxella bovoculi is a relatively recently described bacterium that is associated with Pinkeye (IBK) in cattle. It has likely been associated with Pinkeye for many years and was misdiagnosed as M. ovis.

Mycoplasma bovis

M. bovis is considered one of the more pathogenic species and is the most frequent Mycoplasma pathogen of pneumonia, mastitis, and arthritis in cattle. Like other mycoplasma, it lacks a cell wall which makes treatment with antibiotics difficult.

Mycoplasma bovoculi

Mycoplasma bovoculi is a gram negative bacterium that has been associated with Pinkeye (IBK) in cattle.

Pasteurella multocida

Pasteurella multocida is a bacteria often associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). This organism along with Mannheimia is considered an opportunistic bacteria that invades tissue after an initiating event such as a previous viral infection.

There are a number of Salmonella strains that affect cattle. Many others do not produce clinical disease in animals but instead colonize in the gut, eventually entering the human food chain and causing food poisoning.

Bovine Coronavirus

Bovine coronavirus is an important cause of respiratory and enteric infections in cattle. It is associated with three clinical syndromes: calf diarrhea, winter dysentery in adults, and can be a contributing factor in bovine respiratory disease (BRD).

Bovine Herpesvirus 1

BoHV-1 is a virus known to cause many diseases in cattle. It is the cause of the respiratory disease commonly known as infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and can be a contributing factor in the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD).

Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus

BVDV is a viral disease in cattle caused by the bovine viral diarrhea virus. It is a common cause of respiratory and reproductive issues in the herd, including persistently infected calves and can be a contributing factor in bovine respiratory disease (BRD).

Influenza D Virus

IDV is a newly discovered virus. It is widespread and fairly common in cattle and can be a contributing factor in the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRD).


Rotaviral diarrhea is a common cause of neonatal diarrhea and one of the main infections causing calves to scour between five to fourteen days of age.